Further resources and research, week 11


  • Hammond, C 2014, The ‘pink vs blue’ gender myth, BBC, accessed 15 May 2016,


  • LoBue, V & DeLoache, J. S 2011, ‘Pretty in pink: The early development of gender-stereotyped colour preferences’, British Journal of Developmental Psychology, vol 29, issue 3, pp. 656-667


(“The current findings are inconsistent with recent work that suggests that gender-

based colour preferences may have a biological basis.” “A preference for pink did not emerge in girls until the age of 2.5” (pg 664)

“Furthermore, while girls are developing a preference for pink with age,

boys are developing an avoidance of pink at the same time.” (pg 665)

  • Wong, W. I & Hines, M 2015, ‘Effects of Gender Color-Coding on Toddlers’ Gender-Typical Toy Play’, Archives of Sexual Behaviour, vol 44, issue 5, pp. 1233-1242

“Overall, the results suggest that, once acquired, gender-typical color preferences begin to influence toy preferences, especially those for gender-atypical toys and particularly in boys. They thus could enlarge differences between boys’ and girls’ toy preferences. Because boys’ and girls’ toys elicit different activities, removing the gender color-coding of toys could encourage more equal learning opportunities.”

  • Weisgram, E.S, Fulcher, M & Dinella, L.M 2014, ‘Pink gives girls permission: Exploring the roles of explicit gender labels and gender-typed colors on preschool children’s toy preferences’, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, vol 35, issue 5, pp. 401-409



  • Smith, C & Lloyd, B 1978, ‘Maternal Behaviour and Perceived Sex of Infant: Revisited’, Child Development, vol 49, no. 4, pp. 1263-1265

(Study showing adults choosing different toys based on perceived gender, and responding differently)

  • Jadva, V, Hines, M & Golombok, S 2010, ‘Infants’ Preferences for Toys, Colors, and Shapes: Sex Differences and Similarities’, Archives of Sexual Behaviour, vol 39, issue 6, pp. 1261-1273


“Opposite sex typed behavior is punished or not rewarded, which leads to extinction. Children can also learn which behaviors to adopt by modeling individuals of the same sex as themselves or by complying with labels identifying behaviors as appropriate for children of one sex or the other” (pg 1262)

(Parents surround children with different toys/home environments according to gender)

“Consistent with this argument, boys avoidance of feminine toys has been found to increase with age, and to be stronger when an observer is present (Hartup, Moore, & Sager, 1963)” (pg 1270)

(Both sexes at 12 months prefer dolls showing the preferences developed later are not biological)

  • What the Research Says: Gender-Typed Toys, National Association for the Education of Young Children, viewed 14 May 2016,


Professor Blakemore: I am not sure how surprising this is to me but it might be to parents: Moderately masculine toys encourage children’s physical, cognitive, academic, musical, and artistic skills more so than moderately feminine ones.”

  • Fine, C 2016, Toys for boys and girls show gender stereotypes at play, Pursuit, viewed 12 May 2016,



  • Marsh, J, Plowman, L, Yamada-Rice, D, Bishop, J.C, Lahmar, J, Scott, F, Davenport, A, Davis, S, French, K, Piras, M, Thornhill, S, Robinson, P & Winter, P 2015, Exploring Play and Creativity in Pre-Schoolers’ Use of Apps: Final Project Report, Technology and Play, viewed 13 May 2016,


“Children are most likely to use tablets in the living room and their use is sometimes linked to non-digital, related items such as dolls and soft toys. “ pg 42


  • Marsh, J, Plowman, L, Yamada-Rice, D, Bishop, J.C, Lahmar, J, Scott, F, Davenport, A, Davis, S, French, K, Piras, M, Thornhill, S, Robinson, P & Winter, P 2015, Exploring Play and Creativity in Pre-Schoolers’ Use of Apps: Final Project Report, Technology and Play, viewed 13 May 2016,


“Children use tablets on a typical day for 1 hour 19 minutes and on a typical weekend day for 1 hour 23 minutes.” pg 42 UK study of pre-schoolers

“This study provided evidence that augmented reality apps can promote play and creativity. Children move across the online/ offline, ‘real’ and virtual, digital and non-digital boundaries with ease” pg 46

  • Smith, H. B 2014, ‘The impact of digital and physical play on early childhood development’, Rehabilitation, Human Resources and Communication Disorders Undergraduate Honors Theses, paper 24,


“Of the three high-tech children, each child engaged in a greater number of activities and activity switches while playing with physical toys than while playing with the iPad.” pg 14

  • Noorhidawati, A, Ghazal Ghalebandi, S & Siti Hajar, R 2015, ‘How do young children engage with mobile apps? Cognitive, psychomotor, and affective perspective’, Computers & Education, vol 87, pp. 385-395


“Additionally the children were observed to be able to learn through their experience when interacting with the mobile apps. This is evident in their learning incidents related to knowledge (cognitive); actions/motor skills (psychomotor); attitudes, feelings, and emotions (affective).” pg 393

  • Wakefield, J 2015, Children spend six or more hours a day on screens, BBC News, accessed 17 May 2016,


Naidoo, J. C 2014, Digital Programming for Digital Youth: Promoting Cultural Competence in the Children’s Library, Libraries Unlimited, Santa Barbara, California.


  • Fine, C & Rush, M 2016, ‘“Why Does all the Girls have to Buy Pink Stuff?” The Ethics and Science of the Gendered Toy Marketing Debate’, Journal of Business Ethics, pp. 1-16


“Jenny Willott, while serving as Consumer Affairs Minister in the UK, made reference to the tenet of early childhood that play is an important precursor and facilitator of skills and interests, and argued that GTM stifles development and self-discovery.” pg 2

“ Also notable is the tomboy phenomenon, whereby significant numbers of girls in middle childhood develop considerable interest in male-typed toys and activities, and shun femaletyped ones (Halim et al. 2011). Halim et al. have speculated that one motivating factor contributing to this tomboy phenomenon—and the absence of its equivalent in boys— is girls’ growing awareness at this age of the higher social status and value accorded to males and masculinity.” pg 7

“GTM also emphasises and reinforces gender stereotypes that contribute to stereotype-consistent interests, self-concepts, performance and self-efficacy beliefs,” pg 11

– In the past parents used to try and placate a crying child with toys or a rattle, now it’s an ipad

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